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Lesson 2k - Shallow, Medium, Steep Turns

Lesson Objective

The candidate will learn the elements related to turns, specifically; shallow, medium, and steep turns. Included in this lesson plan is the relationship of dihedral effect to shallow turns, and the effect of the overbanking tendency on steep turns. It is critical to note that the candidate must always be vigilant for air traffic, and will with each and every turn, look for air traffic before initiating any turn.

Regulatory Requirement


The candidate will learn:

  • the effect of the overbanking tendency
  • the effect of dihedral
  • the definition of shallow, medium, and steep banked turns as related to dihedral effect and the overbanking tendency
  • the appropriate application of aileron, elevator, and rudder to perform coordinated turns
  • the appropriate use of elevator and pitch control to maintain the desired airspeed during turns
  • the relationship of bank angle and load factor
  • the relationship of bank angle versus turn radius
  • the relationship of airspeed versus turn radius

Completion Standards

When complete, the student will:

  • clear the area before each and every turn entry
  • exhibit knowledge of the elements related to steep turns, including load factor, effect on stall speed, and overbanking tendency.
  • establish the recommended entry airspeed.
  • for steep turns, enter a turn maintaining a bank angle of 45°±5°
  • for all turns, enter a turn with smooth and coordinated control applications.
  • maintains desired airspeed, ±10 knots.
  • recovers with smooth and coordinated control application within 10° of the desired heading.
  • The student must describe the elements of shallow, medium and steep banked turns.
    • How much bank for each?
    • What separates the shallow from the medium?
    • What separates the medium from the steep?

Note: All criteria for evaluation are taken directly from the Private Pilot Practical Test Standards.

Prerequisite Study


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