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Lesson 3e - Turns to a Heading

Lesson Objective

The student will learn the procedures for turning out on a heading. The student will also learn the different types of error with a magnetic compass.

Regulatory Requirement


  • The candidate will clear the area before turning.
  • The student will be able to turn to any heading described by the instructor, such as 000, 090, 180, 270.
  • Magnetic deviation (the compass in the aircraft is deviant)
  • Magnetic variation (the variation varies from place to place)
  • Compass acceleration error (ANDS)
    • Accelerate -> North
    • Decelerate -> South
  • ...and turning error (UNOS)
    • Undershoot for Northerly headings
    • Overshoot for Southerly headings.
  • relationship of turning error to latitude.
  • the use of a compass card

Completion Standards

The student must be able to perform:

  • Turns to any desired heading specified by the instructor

The student must be able to: 

  • explain compass dip error
  • explain turning error
  • show differences between magnetic deviation and variation
  • identify magnetic variation on an aeronautical sectional
  • explain when the magnetic compass displays the correct heading

Prerequisite Study

Further Study


Next Lesson: 3f -- Forward Stall, with and without airbrakes
Previous Lesson: 3d -- Minimum Controllable Airspeed
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