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Lesson 1c - Use of Controls

Lesson Objective

During this lesson, the Instructor will present the use of the controls in the cockpit and their effect on the control surfaces. In addition, any time there is an exchange of controls, the student and instructor must use the FAA-approved method of "Positive Exchange of Controls." 

Regulatory Requirement

  • Private Pilot Test Candidate: PTS, Page 8, "Positive Exchange of Controls"


  • Positive Exchange of Controls
  • Ailerons
  • Elevator
  • Spoilers
  • Dive brakes
  • Towhook release
  • Rudder
  • Wheelbrakes
  • Trim-tab
  • Empennage
  • Different types of flaps

Completion Standards

When complete, the student will:

  • use the "Positive Exchange of Controls" procedure whenever command of the aircraft changes
  • understand and explain the functions of all above items
  • describe the movement of the stick and how the control surfaces react to the stick movement.
  • describe the use of the rudders
  • describe the use of the spoilers
  • describe the means of locking the spoilers / dive brakes

Prerequisite Study


Next Lesson: 1d -- Cockpit Familiarization
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